Jennifer Alonso Tinoco
¿What Is the mitochondrial genome, and why is transmitted by the mothers?
In this written talk about the mitochondrial genome, that is to say of the deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that It allows to the mitochondria develop its function whit processing center for the energy in the cell, when talking of the genome the doubt emerge, in the cell reproduction how is transmitted? And whit this information, what yours mother inherit for you? by giving your life.
 To Exception the red blood cells, all the cells in yours body have mitochondria, and is there where it happens the reaction that give energy for the cells to the consume the oxygen and glucose, allowing yours body to think, run, dance, breathe and hug; The DNA mitochondrial is the chromosomal code with which this organelle start the reactions that give energy to the body, is much shorter than a chromosomal code of the cell nucleus and is only transmitted for your mother.
The transmission of the DNA mitochondrial is made of mothers to sons without following Mendel’s laws because all the information is transmitted by the mother and will be transmitted only by the females of the next generation, since, in fertilization process, the spermatozoon only manages to provide the nucleus of its cell and the ovum provides the cytoplasm and its organelles, is important remember that in the cell reproduction the only organelles that is not eliminated, but carries out its own process of cell division, this phenomenon has been explained by theorizing that early in the development of life, a more developed cell with a nucleus and a bacterium or lower cell formed an endosymbiosis, where the cell provides nutrients and protection, while the mitochondrion provides several ways of obtaining energy, either quickly or by generating a large amount of energy.
The zygote formed from the spermatozoon and ovum through mitosis will grow and develop, giving rise to different organisms, by recognizing in their cells the transmission of mitochondrial DNA only from their mother from generation to generation, scientists have been tracing the different lineages between people, families, civilizations and species with DNA with little evolutionary change, in these studies can be carried out, since the nuclear DNA is only found once, so it is more exposed to deterioration by environmental causes, while in the eukaryotic cell there are several mitochondria and in them can several copies of its DNA. allowing an analysis of a sample in better understanding in the case of fossils. A curious case where the role of mitochondrial DNA was decisive is the identification of the remains of Cristóbal Colon.
In relation to the energetic function of the mitochondria in the cell, the study of its DNA has allowed scientists and doctors to know the processes of formation of substances (proteins and enzymes) participants in energy production and thus mitochondrial diseases associated with energy production in organs such as muscles, brain and kidneys in relation to the deficiency of adenosine triphosphate ATP either due to mutations, rearrangements or decreased in the mitochondrial DNA at the time of transcription; For the study of these diseases today, we have begun to identify nuclear genes coding for proteins of the complexes of the oxygen-phosphorus reactions participants or responsible for the formation of ATP.
For inheriting the mitochondrial code and energy production in their DNA along with their teaching, love, intelligence and skills throughout our lives; we want to thank the mothers, recognizing the advances in the fight against some diseases and the recognition of the lineages for the different organisms, which has been made from the inheritance of the mothers.
Now you can answer, what do we thank our mothers for from our inheritance?
Reference: Solano, Abelardo, Playán, Ana, López-Pérez, Manuel J., & Montoya, Julio. (2001). Enfermedades genéticas del ADN mitocondrial humano. Salud Pública de México, 43(2), 151-161. Recuperado en 26 de mayo de 2021, de National Human Genome Research Institute. (2015). Mitochondrial DNA, [Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms]
 Lic. En química universidad Pedagógica de Colombia
 Juliana Rodríguez Marín 5D
 Tomas Alejandro Robayo Buitrago 6B
 Sara Sofía González Córdoba 6B